Институт социологии
Российской академии наук

Социс 2014 №12

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SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

Monthly

2014 № 12 (368)

СОNTENTS. SUMMARIES

THEORY. METHODOLOGY

SANINA A.G. (National research University ‘Higher school of economics’, St.-Petersburg. Russia) Genesis of identity idea in sociology and adjacent sciences p. 3

Summary. The paper provides an oveerview of approaches to identity and analyses consequences of transfer of identity notion from socio-psychological and socio-cultural sphere into practical politics. Boundaries for interdisciplinary research of indetity are defined. Author concludes that indentity issues acquire in contemporary academic discourse and interdisciplinary character. Explanatory and discourse potential of the category makes students apply it to different areas of social reality. However, methodological consistency of the framework “essentalism – constructivism” and “individual – collective indentity” as a basis for interpreting research subject are still essential to formation of identity theory.

Key words: identity • social identity • sociological theories

KUZNETSOV A.M. (Far-Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia) Globalization or cosmopolitanism: a discourse in contemporary West-European sociology p. 12

Summary. U. Beck’ cosmopolitan community idea is discussed along with his critique of ‘methodological nationalism’. Author stresses their weak and strong points. A conclusion is made that Beck’s ideas are mostly relevant to West-European sociology, not to social and political realities of other world regions.

Key words: U. Beck • ‘methodological nationalism’ • nation-state • globalization • ‘risk society’ • new modernity • East-Asia • nation building

DEMOGRAPHY. MIGRATION

RYBAKOVSKY L.L. (Institute of social and political research, Russian academy of sciences Moscow, Russia) Russia’s demographic future in extrapolation and normative so-ordinates p. 21

Summary. Demographic forecasts for Russia are analyzed effected both recently and previously. Degree to which their extrapolations correspond to parameters stipulated by Russian Federation demographic policies conception for the period up to 2025 is demonstrated.

Key words: extrapolation • demographic forecast • conception • demographic wave • the total fertility coefficient • expected longevity

OSSADCHAYA G.I. (Institute of social and political research, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Migration from Armenia and Georgia to capital megalopolis p. 31

Summary. Proceeding from sociological data comparative analysis regarding migration processes to Moscow author estimates migration exchange dynamics from Armenia and Georgia into the capital megalopolis. Rates of newcomers’ integration into Moscow communities and migration policies of the recipient side are also discussed.

Key words: extrapolation • demographic forecast • conception • demographic wave • the total fertility coefficient • expected longevity

BIRKELUND G.E. (Oslo University, Oslo, Norway), RINDSACK O.T. (Institute of regional studies. National academy of sciences, Kiev, Ukraine) Discrimination by name: a study in Norwegian labor market p. 37

Summary. Discrimination practices in Norway labor market are analyzed using author’s study of recognizability degree related to certain foreign names. Highest levels of recognizability are identified with regard to Chinese, Indian, and Russian names.

Key words: discrimination • research • name • immigrant • field experiment

SOCIOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

EFENDIEV A.G. (National research University ‘Higher school of Economics’, Moscow. Russia), BALABANOVA E.S. (National research University ‘Higher school of Economics’, Moscow, Russia), LIUBYKH Zh.S. (magisterial student, Letbridge University, Canada) Russian employees’ participation in decision taking in domestic and foreign-owned companies p. 41

Summary. The paper is focused on the issue of high and low power distance cultures interaction inside domestic and foreign-owned organizations. Empirical data for the research were collected from 623 professionals and managers from 17 private companies in 3 Russian cities. ‘Background influence’ of high power-distance Russian culture provides generally lower participation rates of Russian employees in decision making. However, phenomenon of cultural convergence might be observed in foreign-owned companies: low power-distance culture of owners and top-management in these companies leads to higher; employees here are more motivated to participate and more proactive. Foreign-owned companies are also perceived by their employees as more ‘democratic’ than domestic ones.

Key words: employees’ participation • decision taking • power distance • domestic companies • foreign owned companies • organizational authoritarianism • organizational democracy

FROLOVA E.V. (Russian state social University, Moscow, Russia) Social infrastructure of contemporary Russian municipal bodies: issues and prospects for modernization p. 51

Summary. Basing on expert opinions of municipal bodies top officials, conclusions are made with regard to situation and main issues of developing social infrastructure. Most significant resources are found out needed for its modernization: financial, personnel, and information, as well as factors barring the way.

Key words: social infrastructure • municipal communities • local power bodies • modernization of social infrastructure • expert opinion poll

CERANIC G., KRIVOKAPIC N., ZIVKOVIC P. (University of Montenegro, Niksic). Montenegrin entrepreneurs’ characteristics p. 59

Summary. A marked growth of private sector actualizes studies, i.a., of national traditions. The paper reviews characteristics of Montenegrin entrepreneurs including capacities for innovations, motivations to achieve success, self-confidence, internal locus control, independence, preparedness to risk, and tolerance to uncertainties.

Key words: entrepreneurs • characteristics of entrepreneurs • national culture • innovativeness • independence • locus control

SOCIOLOGY OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS

YAKOBA I.A. (State technological University, Irkutsk. Russia) “Soft power” in contemporary politics and discourse technologies p. 65

Summary. Efficiency of ‘soft power’ is grounded as a discourse technology allowing exercising domination, gaining and retaining power. Specific methods are discussed aimed at influencing contemporary societal community thus permitting to assess constructions of resonant media events from power position of word and sign.

Key words: soft power • hard power • discourse construction • discourse technology

PECHERSKAYA E.G. (Institute of management systems, State economic university, Samara. Russia), ZVONOVSKIY V.B. (Institute of management systems, State economic university, Samara. Russia), MERKULOVA D.Yu. (Social research foundation). MATSKEVICH M.G. (Sociological Institute, St.-Petersburg, Russia), PLESHAKOV V.A. (State pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia) First steps in Internet p. 74

Summary. Data of a study related to Internet mastering by children are presented including shares of internet-users among different age-groups of children, frequency of their switchingin, place of internet in the structure of their leisure activities, repertoire of their internet activities. Analyzed were also assessments by parents of internet influence on psychical and physical health and cultural development of children involved.

Key words: on-line practices • off-line practices • internet-activities • internet influence on children • children web-surfing

GAVRILOV K.A., TOLMACH A.D. (both authors – National research University ‘Higher school of economics’, Moscow, Russia) Who is to blame: content-analysis of blog-posts about Domodedovo terrorist attack p. 81

Summary. The article analyzes blogs as a source of collectively generated opinions. The aim is to find out responsibility ascriptions by lay people in case of terrorist attack by studying blogs. Content analysis of blog posts generated in four-day period after Domodedovo airport (Russia) terrorist attack in January 2011 was conducted. Responsibility for the attack is obviously ascribed mainly to institutional (power structures), rather than to individual terrorist or collective (religious fundamentalists) actors. Blogs do not replace traditional media still playing significant role for blogs themselves as a source of factual judgment-free information. Theoretical significance of results obtained amounts to the fact that in a considerable number of cases the actor is accused without specifying his action of commission or omission. Besides, distinction between types of involvement is very important: bloggers blame actors more often for omission than for commission.

Key words: social media • blogs • terrorism • terrorist threat • sociology of risks • risk perception • responsibility and blame attribution

SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH

MEDRZLIAKOVA I.L. (Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don. Russia); LINCHENKO A.A.( Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia), OVCHINNIKOVA E.V. (State Technical University, Lipetsk, Russia). On historical consciousness of contemporary student youth p. 89

Summary. The article analyzes results of a study of state and peculiarities of historical consciousness of modern students. It identifies status of the past in historical consciousness of young people, sources of knowing the past, historical interests, specifics of historical identification, role of various institutions of historical consciousness in representations of young people, ethnocentrism in their historical consciousness, meaningful commemorations. Results of the study are compared to other relevant all-Russian and foreign studies. It is concluded that transformation of historical consciousness of contemporary students has contradictory character associated on the one hand to a clearly defined tendency towards loss of fundamental role of tradition as the basic value in historical consciousness and orientation of their behavior, presenteeism, and on the other hand to maintaining strong traditions of ethnocentrism, state-centrism and interest for family history.

Key words: historical consciousness of youth • knowledge of the past • historical identity • ethnocentrism.

KITAITSEVA O.V., KUCHENKOVA A.V. (Russian state University for Humanities. Moscow, Russia) Trust and individualism in world-views of contemporary youth in Eastern Europe p. 97

Summary. Ties between levels of trust and individualism prevalence degree are discussed based on the study of attitudes and value orientations of East-European youth (Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Czechia). A variety of trust types were identified: generalized, interpersonal, institutional, local, societal. Mutual causation of high trust level and individualism is argued for.

Key words: trust • individualism • East-European countries

BAKRACH V.(Niksic. Montenegro), BLAGOEVICH M. (Beograd. Serbia) Conventional religiosity of Montenegrin youth p. 104

Summary. The paper contains data of a comparative study of young people religiosity belonging to two Christian confessions in contemporary Montenegrin society – Orthodox and Roman-Catholic churches. Empirical part of the study was done in Montenegro in 2010.

Key words: religion • religiosity • church • youth • religiosity indices

SOCIOLOGY OF CULTURE

MULEEV E.Yu. (National Research university Higher school of economics. Moscow, Russia). Architecture and sociology in the USSR: experiences in interaction p. 111

Summary. Interactions of architecture with social sciences during the Soviet period (from 1920th on) are analyzed including impact of social knowledge upon architecture and planning decisions. The study is based on review of relevant periodicals, collections of texts and monographs on architecture and urban sociology.

Key words: urban sociology • sociology of architecture • urban development in the USSR

TARTYGASHEVA G.V. (Buryat state university, Ulan-Ude, Russia), TSYBIKOV T.M. (East-Siberian state academy for culture and arts, Ulan-Ude, Russia) Modernization of cultural municipal bodies activities (Buryatia Republic) p. 120

Summary. Socio-economic, personnel, organizational issues of reforming culture administration bodies are discussed. Effects of transforming culture into an aspect of services are emphasized. Relevant situation in Buryatia is studied and analyzed on the basis of statistical data and opinions of leading officials in administrative bodies and cultural institutions.

Key words: cultural policies • reformation of cultural sphere • municipal cultural bodies • Republic of Buryatia

SHIPUNOVA T.V. (State university, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Specifics of deviation social control (as exemplified by ‘pick-up’ internet project) p. 127

Summary. The aim of the study is to clarify contents of social controls after deviation and role of virtual communication in shaping notions about norm/deviation. Results of an investigation into promotion of consumerist values in intimate human relations via Internet-space are offered exemplified by forms and methods of promoting (a)-social ‘Pick-up’ project. Three elements of the process are emphasized: self-presentation, presentation of product, and contents of consumerist discourse in related site. Each element is studied, describing its basic characteristics.

Key words: Internet-project • ‘pick-up’ Russian model of effective seduction • brand presentation • making of reputation • consumerist discourse • macho-ism

SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE

VASILIEV V.I. (Chairman, Science Board of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the integrated program of “History of Russian Academy of Sciences”, corresponding member of the RAS, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Philology, Professor) Revisited relationshhip between a personality and the society: the academy of sciences as a community and M.V. Lomonosov as a personality struggling for modernization (towards the 290-th aniversary of the Russian academy of sicences) p. 137

Summary. The article devoted to the 290-th aniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) reviews the principal stages (starting from the foundation till our time) of changes in the Academy’s status in the state and society, based on studying constitutional documents which reflect to the full extent the processes of science becoming a social institution under the conditions of struggle for the academic community self-determination. The article also covers the characteristics of “Lomonosov’s epoch” and the influence of a relationship between the personality of the first Russian academician M.V. Lomonosov and the society that opposed innovations and transformations of the Academy, the goal to which the scientist devoted considerable period of his scientific and public life in the Academy.

Key words. Academy of Sciences, community, society and state, sociocultural sphere, social institution, constitutional documents, M.V. Lomonosov, “remodelling of the Academy”.

ACADEMIC EVENTS

ZUEVA D.S. 23rd International academic and practical conference ‘Vectors of contemporary Russia development’: from values formation to traditions invention p. 145

TSAPKO M.S., TSYBIKOVA D.G. (Russian State University for humanities) Intelligentsia: natural-scientific, social and humanitarian knowledge on the way of integration p. 146

ZOTOV A.A. Monument to P.A. Sorokin p. 148

BOOK REVIEWS – IN MEMORIAM – A.V. Zakharov , B.V. Dubin – JOURNALS’ GUIDE – 2014 PUBLICATIONS INDEX – CONTENTS. SUMMARIES



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