Институт социологии
Федерального научно-исследовательского социологического центра
Российской академии наук

История и современность №2 2011

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Theory

Konstantin Chichinadze. Application of general systems theory in ethnology (definition of national interest and nationalist ideology of the small nations).

The majority of theoretical designs in social studies is deprived of firm methodological basis. That prevents identifications of laws existing between the certain phenomena. To correct noted state of affairs, the most effective way could become application in social studies of methods and approaches generated within natural-science disciplines. The choice of a theme of research is not connected with author’s political views and article does not contain estimation judgments, and it is only attempt of objective analysis of ideology of nationalism, according to the general theory of systems.

Key words: The general theory of systems, ethnology, national interest, ideology of nationalism.

History of societies and civilizations

Iskander Izmailov. ISLAM IN VOLGA BULGARIA: PROPAGATION AND THE REGIONAL SPECIAL FEATURES

Article is dedicated to one of the most important aspects of the history of Volga Bulgaria – to propagation in this medieval country of Islam and its regional special features/ The author proves, what process of the penetration of new in the religion occurred in IX – first half X A.C. To the boundary of the X-XI A.C. substances Islam it became established religion, which depended on the support of state and widely was extended in all layers of society. Islam became the basis of the state ideology of bulgar elite, and its ritual practice ruled in the life of bulgar society at end of tenth century. Islam in Bulgaria acquired the special features, which determined the nature of Islam up to XIX A.C.

Key words: Volga Bulgaria, Islam, paganism and world religions, rituals and customs, moslem civilization, local special features

Vadim Kulachkov. Popular images of authority in the first post-revolutionary decade in Russia.

The relation of the peasantry to power traditionally has been ambivalent. On the one hand, the peasants, dependent on government procurement of grain and other commodities, can not imagine themselves outside the sphere of state influence on the other - the state, identified with the mass of the representatives of governmental bodies, it was perceived as a negative value and evil. Inconsistency socio-economic policy authorities social expectations of peasantry contributed to the gradual destruction of the ideal image of the Soviet government, formed in post-revolutionary period. In the mass consciousness of the peasantry of the Western region of Russia attended the various images of power - from the ideal, which shaped the propaganda - to real, on the basis of life practices.

Key words: Popular images of power, the peasantry, the power of the state, the Western region of Russia, the post-revolutionary period

Kulpin E.S. Why has not been executed Genghis Khan's precept?

From all, that we know about the Mongolian intrusion into the Europe, perhaps, till now not clear the unexpected termination of invasion. Incomprehensibility of reasons for it is connected with traditional representation of conquerors as a single whole, though it is well known, that they were not homogeneous neither socially, nor ethnically and, accordingly, had different interests. The divergence of interests of turks and Mongols, could compel to stop the intrusion into the Western Europe.

Key words: The Mongolian conquests, the nature, ethnoses, a policy, economy.

Yao Van. The GEOPOLITICAL ASPECTS OF CONTINENTAL AND SEASIDE CHINESE CULTURE

The author of article believes the Chinese seaside and overseas culture is direct continuation of continental culture of China. Though the culture of the central plain was self-sufficient due to the rich resources and huge territory, and prevailed over cultures of less developed regions and nationalities, nevertheless during its distribution not confrontation but peace dialogue has prevailed. The dialogue between midland and seaside culture proceeds even now.

Key words: China, the Peoples Republic of China, civilization of the central China, continental culture of China, seaside culture of China.

The nature and society

Olga Aksenova. Illusion of ecological modernization.

The paper examines the ecological modernization process, which is interpreted as a technocratic tendency of pro-ecological transformations. The results of ecomoderanization are analyzed including standartization of decision-making process and reduction of the reflection to the assessment of management effectiveness. The concept of the environmental comfort as the goal of modern environmental management is introduced. The necessity of the elaboration of the alternative models of environmental change is considered. The paper demonstrates an example of the revealing of these alternatives through analysis on the Soviet industrialization strategy, which was based on science researches and allowed a considerable degree of freedom in professional decision-making.

Key words: environmental modernization, environmental risk, technology, environmental comfort, environmental management, industrial society, postmodernity.

Klimenko V.V., Mikushina O.V. Unusual dynamics of global temperature in the beginning of XXI century or natural factors against anthropogenous factors.

It is clear, that observable global rise in temperature grows out joint influence on climatic system not only anthropogenous, but also natural factors. Some of the last also are the reason of modern climatic paradox. The analysis on the basis of identification of these factors allows to give the forecast of development of a climatic situation in the world in nearest decades. This forecast has no catastrophic character.

Key words: Global warming, anthropogenous and natural factors, process, dynamics, the forecast.

Olejnikov J.V. Motive forces bifurcation of evolution of socionatural universum .

The modern mankind has entered in unprecedented - qualitatively new - stage of the development. For the first time in history of the Earth the individual became the force, capable to change evolution of planetary socionatural universum. This circumstance radically changes all system of world outlook representations about place and roles of the person in the nature and society, all way of life of people, their system of values and priorities that should cause change of a way of manufacture and all social relations, education systems and education, say, to transform all material life of people and representations about it.

Key words: Noosphere, evolution, way of manufacture, social relations, system of values

Vasily Ushnitsky. Landscape role in formation of the Yakut ethnos.

The article examines influence of northern landscape on formation of the Yakut ethnos. A severe environment has defined a way of life of the person and has forged the Yakut character. Diligence, patience, endurance, goodwill became the basic features of northern ethnos.

Key words: Landscape, the Yakut ethnos, environment, cattle breeding, taiga, pastures, fishery

Irina Khaliy. Society and the nature: evolution of the newest theoretical concepts.

In the paper evaluation of theoretical concepts concerning society and nature interactions is analyzed. It is stressed that transformation is connected to change of the installations concerning, first of all, with change of the social actor, responsible for preservation of the nature and support of immediate environment. Originally (1970th) were supposed that the main actor in the environmental sphere should be the society as a whole and its concrete components. Such as social movements and nongovernmental organizations, local communities, structures of management and policy. After (1990th) the accent was made already on activity of management structures. At last, in the conditions of modern processes of globalization when locality isn't represented significant, including their environment, climate change is declared to be the basic environmental problem, which means that owners of the large capital can actively participate in its resolving only.

Key words: theoretical concepts, society and nature interactions, social movements, local communities, environmental policy and management, climate change.

On the verge of centuries

Projogina S.V. Immigrants in the Europe: social outcasts or the "forgotten" citizens?

It is written much about what is «immigrant zones» in France by both political scientists and the sociologists who investigate processes of integration of north-Africans in France. The professional writer - ethnic algerien Mounsi - managed to recreate a bright picture of geographical, social and psychological alienation of the people who have left the native grounds in searches of the best lot, but found on foreign land only sharp sensation of abandonment, neglect, out casting, territorial and cultural marginality, despite the attempts of rooting in the society which once has given to Muslim emigrants an opportunity of hope for a new life.

Key words: Muslim immigration to France, a "zonal" landscape, marginal being, social "abandonment", integration difficulties, decomposition of generations, assimilation claims.

Shamil Umerov. Space and time: people of "bottom" foreign travel as proto genre in the newest Russian literature.

The article discusses a number of recently published books, which share a common theme: the characters, which spring from low social groups, rather expressively describe their foreign travels. The author of the article views that the development of this kind of “travel” genre is associated with the continuation of the socio-historical processes that have been happening in the world over the last two decades.

Key words: travel, the abroad, the bottom of the society, genre, fiction, inter-ethnic relations, globalization.

Connection of times

Marta Zhakovska. Evolution of the Russian youth culture.

Culture and a politics - are inseparable. Ascertaining is banal, but I would like to examine it on very interesting, in my opinion, example. The purpose of this article is to show, how culture of the Russian youth has changed in last years and how this evolution has influenced shape of those political movements in Russia whose members are mainly representatives of youth.

Key words: Youth, evolution, culture, socially political movements.



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