Институт социологии
Федерального научно-исследовательского социологического центра
Российской академии наук

Социологический журнал 3-2014

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M.F. Сhernysh Civilizational foundations of society and social structure 6-32

Сhernysh Mikhail Feodorovitch — Doctor of Sociology, Head of Social Mobility Research sector of the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 24/35, korpus 5, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., Moscow, Russia, 117218. Phone: +7 (499) 125-00-60. Email: mfche@yandex.ru

Abstract. The paper poses a question on the applicability and possible meanings of “civilization” in modern society. Arnold Toynbee used it widely to define human societies as the products of various types of natural environment. In different landscapes humans looked for optimal ways to survive and thereby created conditions for the rise of specific civilization cultures. The researchers of the past regarded the Indian caste system a typical example of a social structure determined by culture. M. Weber defined castes as a system based on status. Celesten Bugle claimed that castes were a variant of a professional structure crystallized in cultural codes. Julius Boeke proposed his own theory of dual cultures in areas where modern culture meets archaic cultures of culturally-determined inequalities. The research results allows to conclude that civilizations can be divided into strong and weak types. Strong civilization possess means to enforce the forms of inequality based on culture. Weak civilizations create an environment where social structure is determined by a configuration of social and political forces, including state policies. At present Russia is a weak civilization in which cultural patterns of life do not have significant influence on the forms and scale of inequality.

Keywords: inequality, social structure, culture, civilization.


R.T. Fakhrislamova The phenomenon of women childlessness in Russia: historical and social background 33-54

Fakhrislamova Rozaliia Tashtimerovna — postgraduate, Institute of Demography of the National Research University Higher School of Economics.
Address: 1/428 Davidova Str., VNIISOK, Odincovo district, Moscow region, Russia, 143080. Phone: +7 (916) 809-93-96. Email: rfakhrislamova@gmail.com

Abstract. Over the past 200 years, the birth rate in our country has undergone major changes; as a result the study of the childless as a population group is of considerable interest to researchers. The aim of this work is a study of female childlessness as a social phenomenon, the causes and conditions of its dissemination in Russian society. Thanks to the works of social historians, medical doctors and demographers the essence of the phenomenon of childlessness in Russia has been described. Using the population Сensus 2002 and 2010, we have traced the evolution of the percentage of the childless among the women of different ages and generations.
As the analyses has shown, there have always been such women, however their number changed as well as the attitudes towards them in society, and the reasons for childlessness. In any generation, in different epochs celibacy was the main reason, but the role of this factor has varied throughout the demographic history.
The problem of female childlessness in modern Russia has a tendency to rise, particularly in urban areas. In addition, we found a regional differentiation in the level of childlessness, which once again demonstrates the diversification of its causes and effects. In the second half of the 20 century the influence of demographic factors (war, famine, social and economic turmoil) at the level of childlessness was virtually phased out. Development of reproductive medicine, gynaecology, infertility treatment effectively increased the number of women who gave birth to children. At the present stage, there has been an increase in the number of the voluntarily childless, that may be a reflection of both the interim and final individual choice.

Keywords: childlessness, celibacy, fertility, marriage rate.


D.L. Konstantinovskiy Education, labor market, and social behavior of youth 55-69

Konstantinovskiy David L’vovich — Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Sociology, Chair of Department of Sociology of Education.
Address: 24/35, b. 5, Krzhizhanovskogost., Moscow, Russia, 117218. Phone: +7 (499) 128-69-01. Email: scan21@mail.ru

Abstract. The interaction between the educational system, labor market, and social behavior of young people, improving compliance of each of the components with one another is one of the most actual scientific and practical problems today. A significant number of the within-country empirical studies as well as cross-country empirical studies appeared in these latter days. However, these studies are focused only on some of the elements of the three-element system, but not on all of them. That is why there is a need to move towards a complex study. In the project initiated by sociologists of the Institute of Sociology of RAS and supported by the Russian Science Foundation such an approach will be implemented.
The paper based on generalization of existing statistic data and results of sociological research offers some ideas about this issue. It is noted that the labor market is inextricably linked with educational sphere and social behavior of young people choosing their educational and professional careers. At the same time, it functions very independently from them. Youth get labor market signals with some distortions that disturb young people to orientate themselves at the situation. The educational system is functioning quite autonomously from the labor market and in close connection with the social behavior of young people. Students and their parents became direct consumers of so-called educational services. As a consequence the orientation of the educational institutions becomes stronger to the needs of families (or rather, families’ understanding of their needs).
Differentiation in the sphere of education, the existing inequality of getting quality education and other social problems are analyzed. The considerations will form the basis of the research project’s conception.

Keywords: education, labor market, youth, social behavior, educational and professional trajectories, social management.

G.A. Kliucharev Reform of Russian education system: expert opinion and parent’s attitude to it 70-85

Kliucharev (Klyucharev) Grigory Arturovich — Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Philosophy, professor, Director of the Center of sociology of education, science and culture. Address: 24/35, korpus 5, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., Moscow, Russia, 117218. Phone: +7 (916) 510-26-22. Email: Kliucharev@mail.ru

Abstract. The data of polls on ongoing reforms in education is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the number of the experts who are positively perceiving reforms, steadily decreases on the “top managers – teachers” axis. About a half of university professors and school teachers belong to transformations watchfully and consider them mostly premature.
However, the available data of monitoring “Reforms in Russian Education”, conducted by the Federal Research Sociological Center under the leadership of Dr. Frantz Sheregi in 2009 and 2012 (total sample N = 5530) testify that not all planned actions manage to be realized up to the end. The reasons of failures in many respects are explained by lack of interest in modernization of education from various public forces, misunderstanding or ignorance from their party of expected advantages and benefits which will bring, at their appropriate execution, reforms. As a result — the regional authorities do not provide sufficient support of transformations. The exception is made only by “the highest commanders” and heads who owing to the situation are rather well motivated on reforms.
The conclusion is that low productivity of held events is explained by, at least, two essential factors is drawn. First, this absence or a wrong social and economic assessment of efficiency of education in the relations with a labor market. The education system remains true only to itself and doesn't want to be guided by other players. Secondly, it is a lack of personal interest of ordinary actors of reforms — teachers, tutors, chiefs of the bottom and average level.

Keywords: education reforms, modernization, efficiency of education, expert opinion.


T.G. Svetlichnaya, E.A. Smirnova, E.A. Mordovsky Comparison of access resources to psychiatric support for groups of mentally sane and abnormal people 86-100

Svetlichnaya Tatiana Gennadievna — Doctor of Medical Science, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Management and Informatics, Professor of the Department of Public Health, Health and Social Work; Northern State Medical University (Arkhangelsk) (NSMU). Address: 51, Troitsky ave., Arkhangelsk, Russia, 163000. Phone: +7 (8182) 65-53-10. Email: iso@nsmu.ru

Smirnova Elena Alekseevna — Graduate Student of the Department of Public Health, and Social Work; NSMU. Address: 51, Troitsky ave., Arkhangelsk, Russia, 163000. Phone: +7 (8202) 21-94-26. Email: Smirnova56@yandex.ru

Mordovsky Edgar Arturovich — Graduate Student, Assistant of the Department of Public Health, and Social Work; NSMU. Address: 51, Troitsky ave., Arkhangelsk, Russia, 163000. Phone: +7 (8182) 65-53-10. Email: isphamea@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article describes individual resources of the population providing access to psychiatric services, in terms of assessment of ill and mentally sane people. The ground for study was based on the data from Budgetary Institution of Health Service “Vologda region neurologic treatment centre No. 1” (Cherepovets). The scope of observation covered 368 people. Among them 38,4% received in-patient and 61,6% received out-patient treatment, which, in general, corresponds to the existing referrals of patients between the in-patient and out-patient sectors in the psychiatric service support of the region. The comparison group was represented by 399 mentally sane people. A specially developed statistical “Map of studying social-psychological portrait of psychiatric services’ consumers” was used as a tool for conducting the research, which was validated during the pilot study. The results were electronically databased and statistically processed with the help of the application program package SPSS ver. 17 and WinPEPI (calculation of 95% confidence intervals (CI) by Fisher’s method. To define the presence of correlations between the categorical variables, Pearson’s chi-squared test was used. To define the constraint force, Cramer’s V was used.
The factors are revealed that decrease personal abilities to use psychiatric services, and as a result, restricting personal resources to support and restore mental health. Specific attention is given to studying the financial component in using the psychiatric services, stating the inequality in gaining access to dedicated medical care for certain social groups and subgroups under the condition of a transformational economy. It was proved that the abnormalities in the mental status of individuals increase the risk of economic marginalization, lowering their social and economic status, and as a result limit the possibilities to use psychiatric services. The consequence leads to the intensification of inequality regarding access of different social groups to psychiatric medical care, being vital to support and restore not only of psychic but also of social health.

Keywords: availability of mental health services, consumers of mental health services, individual resources, social inequality, income, occupation level, unemployment.


A.I. Ilin De-consolidation and de-politicization as characteristics of consumer society 101-115

Ilin Alexey Nicolaevitch — Сandidate of Philosophical Sciences, Professor of the chair of practical psychology of Omsk State Pedagogical University. Address: 4a, 117, Partizanskaya str. Omsk, Russia, 644086. Phone: +7 (950) 338-15-73. Email: ilin1983@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article highlights that in the post-Soviet Russian society consumer culture has developed that has a negative impact on many aspects of the socio-cultural life of a person and society in general. In particular, problems related with the consumerism have been considered. They are disintegration of social ties and the political inactivity of the people. These properties are especially common to youth, formed in the post-Soviet time. As theoretical and methodological basis of the study the theories of sociology of consumption and social philosophy have been used. The analysis of the viewpoints of Russian researchers studying the problems of social atomization, social fears, identity under conditions of development of consumer tendencies has been presented. As a methodological base we use works of foreign authors (Z. Bauman, J. Baudrillard, G. Debord, A. Touraine), exploring the features of the mass consumer society. Conclusions are made about the fact that excessive consumption typical of modern Russian and other societies, cultivates the value of individualism, puts the person's attention from the serious political problems on personal problems. The result is the weakening of social ties, political activity decreases (for example, protesting), interest in the issue of public goods is replaced by a purely personal interest. The hypertrophy of the values of consumption in the limit leads to the society's loss of its foundation — sociality.

Keywords: culture of consumption, deconsolidation, depoliticization, consumer society, political passivity, individualism, solidarity, atomization.


A.M. Nikulin Soviet ideological and political conflicts and scientific heritage of T.I. Zaslavskaya 116-139

Nikulin Alexandr Mikhailovich — Candidate of Economical Sciences, Director of the Rural Research‘s Centre of The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and public administration. Phone: 8 (499) 956-95-56. Email: harmina@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analysis the history of the Soviet social and political conflicts through several economic and sociological research of Academician T.I. Zaslavskaya. This problems are associated with the comparison the level of development the rural economy the USSR and the USA in the early 1960s: analysis the causes the slowdown economic growth in the period of stagnation in the early 1980s and the problems of rural and urban settlement and migration in 1960–1980 was taken. The article describes the evolution of relations between political power and scientist’s work in the performance context of scientific organizations, influence of media, and reaction of  public opinion in the Soviet Union.
The article formulates the problem of professional and moral continuity of post-Soviet society on the example of T.I. Zaslavsky intellectual heritage.

Keywords: socio-economic studies, T.I. Zaslavskaya, agriculture in the USSR and the United States, competition between two systems, science and power, Stalinism, Thaw, congestion, post-soviet Russia.

O.D. Kutsenko Tatyana Zaslavskaya’s contribution to social structure theory 140-156

Kutsenko Olga Dmytrivna — Doctor of sociological sciences, Full professor, Head of Social Structure and Social Relations Chair, Faculty of Sociology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv; Vice-President of Sociological Association of Ukraine. Address: 4d  Academica Glushkova Pr., r. 510b, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine. Phone: +380 (44) 239-31-06. Email: olga.kutsenko.ua28@gmail.com

Abstract. The analysis of scientific contribution, given by T.I. Zaslavskaya into development of theory of social structure and sociological comprehension of structural mechanisms of changes in the Soviet and post-Soviet societies, is submitted. On the basis of the T. Zaslavskaya’s texts the essential ideas about social structure as a basic component of mechanism of social life are stated. The prospects for application of this scientific knowledge in sociological study of social phenomenon and processes are outlined. The theory of social structure, which was logically completed at the end of the 1990s, develops a complex relational approach to interpretation of structure as a system of relations between social groups as well as a system of social inequality. It is argued proximity of T. Zaslavskaya’s theoretical principles to the contemporary way of theoretical synthesis in Sociology which draws together the structural, agency, and cultural strategies in explanation of social life. It is resulted in analytical differentiation of three basic structural parameters which form a social relation network. These parameters are useful for sociological measurement of social structure. The epistemological value of the empirical “vertical” model of social structure is explored that allows the author to detect a deep conflict inside the social structure of the ‘late’ Soviet society as well as to find the main tendencies of structural transformation under the post-Socialism. It is paid attention to the special theoretical and practical value of the conceptual ideas about three levels of complexity of the qualitative societal changes developed by T. Zaslavskaya. These ideas are formed in line with the works on neo-institutional theory by D. Nort. The theory of social structure is been developed and realized by T.I. Zaslavskaya within the strong research program which included: the scaled theoretical and methodological elaboration aimed at explanation of the regularities of social development; application of the theoretical elaboration in empirical investigations; empirically-grounded findings which were proposed for political decision-making and public policy.

Keywords: social structure, changes in social structure, social mechanism of social life, agent and structural conception, human potential. 


Congratulations Ya.I. Gilinsky, V.N. Ivanov, A.N. Alekseev on the occasion of the 80th anniversary; congratulations Z.T. Golenkova on the occasion of the 75th anniversary 157


A.N. Alekseev Commentary on some data of Levada Center surveys 159-173

Alekseev Andrey Nikolaevich — Candidate of Philosophy Sciences, an independent researcher. Email: alexeev34@yandex.ru

V.V. Kartavtsev Clerke T., Hopwood N. Doing ethnography in teams. A case study of asymmetric in collaborative research. New York: Springer Briefs In Education, 2014 174-179

Vladimir Vladimirovich Kartavtsev — Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Centre for Federative Research Methodology of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Phone: +7-903-578-66-64. Email: kartavtsev.vladimir@gmail.com


Presentation of the Expedition Project of Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM), 2013 2014 180-186



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