Институт социологии
Российской академии наук

ESA Conference 2019 in Manchester

14th Conference of the European Sociological Association

Europe and Beyond: Boundaries, Barriers and Belonging

Manchester, United Kingdom, 20 – 23 August 2019

 

Session

MD06: Paths of Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe: Boundaries, Barriers and Belonging
Time: Wednesday, 21/Aug/2019: 12:45pm - 1:45pm
Session Chair: Elena Danilova,
Institute of Sociology, FCTAS, Russian Academy of Sciences Location: BS.G.35

Manchester Metropolitan University Building: Business School, Ground Floor Oxford Road Session Abstract During this Midday session, we will discuss questions and outcomes steaming from the research of social transformations in the region of Eastern and Central Europe. Are generational and technological factors in this respect decisive? Does political governance lead to new barriers and boundaries? Do the changes lead to a convergence or a gap between the East and West in Europe? Or are the barriers and boundaries that we talk about maybe illusive? What are the new divides arising and new types of belonging emerging? The book The Routledge International Handbook of European Social Transformations (edited by Peeter Vihalemm, Anu Masso, Signe Opermann in the Routledge International Handbooks series, 2018) examines the social, institutional, spatial and temporal dimensions of social transformation as they are experienced in Eastern Europe and the European Union. The contributing authors address aspects of social transformations, link them to social theory and to global processes of transformation and provide empirical evidences. Those participating in the Midday session are: Veronica Kalmus, Marju Lauristin, Matej Makarovic, Zenonas Norkus, Triin Vihalemm.

Session RN22_06: Social Responses to Climate Change and Environmental Risks
Time: Thursday, 22/Aug/2019: 2:00pm - 3:30pm
Session Chair: Kirill Gavrilov,
National Research University –Higher School of Economics Location: UP.3.212 University of Manchester Building: University Place, Third Floor Oxford Road

Presentations

RN32_03a: Citizenship and Civil society (II)
Time: 21/Aug/2019: 4:00pm-5:30pm · Location: GM.338

(Dis)Empowerment of “We the People” in Contemporary Russia from a Perspective of Its Constitutionalism
Irina Leonidovna Nedyak, Artemy Michailovich Kuchinov

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

Post Soviet constitution was established without sufficient adjustment to entrenched social practices and social norms. That has been causing the constant informalization of the formal norms and delegitimation of the basic law. It’s also worth noting historically short experience of democratic representation, political participation, political and property rights These features resulted in extending the scope of arbitrary power at the cost of the political order of lawfullness and self-government along with fostering processes of deinstitutionalization, depolitization, erosion of civic virtues. Hence the specificity of constitutionalism development is intimately linked to the processes of disempowerment of “We the People”. One of the aim of state-wide survey (Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018,) was to define most appropriate institutional structures of executive and legislative power that help to provide rule of law and universalization of norms and yet can enforce popular sovereignty. Measurement of the potential to interiorize the two competing models of republican political order - democratic vs legal constitutionalism -revealed a very special entanglement of incoherent and controversial values and reasons of their adherents. We take this entanglement as a pivot of the analysis of the institutional environment and moral order most likely to empower people and to customize the meaning of virtues of both vita activa and vivere libero. The research is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No.17-03-00446).

RN10_04b: Life-long learning
Time: 21/Aug/2019: 6:00pm-7:30pm · Location: UP.3.211

The Role Of Lifelong Learning In Improving The Efficiency Of Knowledge-intensive Enterprises
Grigorii Kliucharev, Anna Chursina, Irina Trofimova

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

The paper considers interaction between institutions of lifelong learning and sectors of the knowledge-intensive economy. The practical importance of the investigation is that it provides a systemic understanding of the factors that secure the effective interaction of subjects, enabling recommendations for improving the efficiency of knowledge-intensive industries. The paper’s theoretical basis is that innovation practice is viewed as an open environment with a high level of uncertainty and risk, in which both adaptation (lifelong learning) and conservative (rental) strategies are implemented. Empirical data was gathered through 100 semi-structured interviews of experts conducted between 2017-2018 in different regions of Russia. The sample included heads of knowledge-intensive enterprises, heads of educational institutions, members of innovation clusters, government employees and venture investors. The conclusion is that the role of lifelong learning in the development of innovation processes has increased because of the need for regular training of staff and improvement of their skills based on the needs of industries. Moreover, the formal system of higher professional education doesn’t meet the requirements of the market economy. Consequently, lifelong learning is realized as supplementary professional education provided by the employer, sometimes as a corporate university structure operating as one of the divisions of the enterprise.

RN36_05: Modernity and urban context
Time: 22/Aug/2019: 11:00am-12:30pm · Location: GM.304

Sociocultural Modernization and a Civilizational Complex of a Local Urban Territory
Vladimir Kozlovskii

Sociological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

In modern sociological explanations of the dynamics of Russian society, there is a widespread desire to combine linearly-modernization and local-civilizational paradigms in the framework of the “sociocultural” modernization model. It was designed to take into account the variability of ways and methods of modernization in different countries. This concept is an attempt to combine the progressive dynamics of the structural and institutional differentiation of the social system with the continuity of the cultural and civilizational identity of society. The concept of sociocultural modernization asserts the multiplicity of modernization' ways. For an alone taken society it, like the classical theories of modernization, sets an invariant trajectory of movement towards modernity. The variability of modernization paths correlates not only with the multiplicity of modernizing countries, each of which draws its own trajectory of movement towards modernity and within modernity, but also is associated with the multiplicity of projects and models of modernity that arise within each particular society. It makes sense to talk about the multiplicity of modernization in relation to different societies, also in relation to the same society, not only in the diachronic, but also in the synchronous dimension. The proposed civilizational complex of a local urban territory or small city makes it possible to explain a complex mechanism that ensures the overcoming of the crisis of the Soviet model of single-industry towns, the diversification of their traditional economic and production structure, the formation and reproduction of multidirectional socio-structural effects of a dynamically changing culture. Thus, a civilizational complex of a local territory is one of the case of a contemporary sociocultural multiple modernization. (Abstracts were prepared with the support of the RFBR, project No.18-011-01254.)

RN36_06: Political field: Politicians, institutions and masses
Time: 22/Aug/2019: 2:00pm-3:30pm · Location: GM.304

Constituting a Political Field in Russia: An Empirical Analysis
Liudmila Philippova, Sergey Patrushev, Tamara Pavlova

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

The concept of political field – a public space of dialogue and conflict over existing and alternative projects of common goals and strategic decisions for society – is used as a methodological tool in studying the institutional environment of politics. Political field is constituted through interrelated processes of institutionalization – elaboration of rules and organizational structures, and politicization – manifestation of social contradictions and realization of actors’ political subjectness. Forming of political field is indicated by the following: emergence and ideological expression of political identities (cleavages); increase in individual and collective participation; institutionalization of conflict and dialogue between citizens, as well as between citizens and the state; legal universalization of norms and procedures of interaction within political community. Shaping of modern politics’ institutional environment is facilitated by the deliberative practices in which civic orientations and values, as well as norms, rules and strategies, are produced. In the paper the conditions for constitution of political field in contemporary Russia are analyzed. According to the data of state-wide survey (FCTAS RAS, 2018), in the majority of respondents’ view, politics is replaced by activity within the non-political and essentially deformalized “zone of power”. A minority demonstrates a normative understanding of politics, corresponding to the ideal-typical construct of political field. The survey results also helped to assess the prospects for the implementation of deliberative practices, which can potentially overcome limitations of the zone of power and facilitate the formation of political field. The research is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 17-03-00446).

RN19_09b: Changing Context - Shifting Identities?
Time: 23/Aug/2019: 11:00am-12:30pm · Location: BS.3.28

Professional Dynasties as a Social Mechanism for the Reproduction of Professional Identities
Olesya Yurchenko, Valery Mansurov

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

Project Professional Dynasties as a Social Mechanism of the Reproduction of Professional Groups is directed towards the studies of reasons and circumstances of the rise and fall of professional dynasties. By dynasty we understand a social group localised in the industrial and socio-economic sphere characterised by kindred relationships, where several generations do their professional work in the same sphere. We have studied the professional dynasties of doctors, teachers, lawyers and engineers under contemporary conditions of work. We have undertaken in-depth interviews with the members of these professional dynasties engaged in the public and private sector in Moscow, Moscow region, Ekaterinburg, Ufa and Samara in 2018. The phenomenon of ‘professional dynasty’ was brought to life by the Soviet state in the 1920-s. Dynasties were social constructs done by the state that aimed at producing elite professions and professional layers. Later, professional dynasties were formed in various spheres by professionals themselves through parents’ expectations and passing down of professional knowledge. Contemporary dynasties still constitute professional identities and provide the passing down of knowledge from parents to children. Dynasties may become a resource for a family professional mobility. The members of dynasties use various informal methods and practices for the upbringing of next generation in the context of changing economic, technical and social realities. Dynasties may provide conditions for the effective professional adaptation and career realization of young generations. Dynasties no longer guarantee an elite professional standing. However, dynasty professionals have a stronger professional identity and they report to be better adapted to the changes in the labour market.

RN11_09: Emotion Management in Intercultural Contexts
Time: 23/Aug/2019: 11:00am-12:30pm · Location: BS.3.26

Affective Aspects of the Transnational Migration from Central Asia in Russia
Vera Peshkova

Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Federation is among of the top five countries receiving migrants, much of which is migrants from the Central Asia. Their main goal is to improve their personal life and well-being of their family at home. However nowadays migration is a multifaceted phenomenon involving various transnational links and practices, the circulation between countries not only of people, but also of various social and economic activities, ideas and symbols, elements of material culture, as well as various desires and expectations. This means that a deep understanding of migration cannot be limited to approaching it as a predominantly mechanical movement between countries due only to rational reasons. A moving person turns out to be not just in a new country, but in a new life situation, which is characterized by a multitude of new circumstances and statuses. These new contexts and social interactions generate new emotions. In this regard, I will make an attempt to show the emotional experiences that accompany transnational migration on example of the migration from the Central Asia in Russia. What emotions migrants experience? What emotions are associated with migration experience? What contexts of migration experience evoke positive and what negative emotions? What role do emotional experiences play not only in the life of migrants, but also in the lives of their families at home, etc.? According to our preliminary analysis, the main characteristic of the migrant's emotions is that they perceive themselves not as an equal participant in social interaction, but as an object; lose their subjectivity.

RN32_09b: Citizenship and Civil society (III)
Time: 23/Aug/2019: 11:00am-12:30pm · Location: GM.339

When There Is No Choice: Electoral Preferences of Russians In Times of Ideological Uncertainty
Irina Trofimova, W.John Morgan, Grigorii Kliucharev

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation; Wales Institute of Social & Economic Research, Data & Methods, Cardiff University

The study analyses the electoral preferences of Russians who participated in the 2016 parliamentary and 2018 presidential elections. The empirical basis is derived from the data of nationwide monitoring carried out by Federal Centre of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences over 2014-2018. The sample comprised 4,000 persons (aged 18 and over) and was representative of the adult population in terms of gender, age, education and type of settlement. As the study shows elections in modern Russia may be described as “elections without choice”. This is why contemporary Russia resembles the Soviet Union. But the main difference is that the Soviet elections had Communist ideology as the basis, and those with dissenting opinions suffered official ostracism, persecution, and repression. Contemporary Russian elections are stripped of any ideological orientation. At present, the Russian policymakers consider an ideology as non-essential, while dissension is still considered dangerous. Consequently, today's ideological constructs become illusory and more disproportionate to the real tasks, values, and interests of a majority of citizens. Most voters are ill-informed about party and pre-election programmes that use conservative, social and democratic and liberal slogans. However, the study shows that, on the one hand, elections in contemporary Russia remain an essential political institution. This is proved by high voter turnout and the participation of opposition parties and leaders. Nevertheless, the effective democratic component is weak and largely formal.

RN19_09a: Too cool for School? Changing Professionalism in the Educational Field
Time: 23/Aug/2019: 11:00am-12:30pm · Location: BS.3.27

Changing Professional Knowledge and Authority of School Teachers
Valery Mansurov, Olesya Yurchenko

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

Globalisation of education led to the understanding that Russian school is not effectively preparing graduates for life in the modern world. The Ministry of Education and Science fostered changes in school education. It proclaimed the need to change the content of the school teachers’ job and to build an open and collegial management system in school education. In this article, we consider the school teacher’s views of the changing nature of their professional knowledge and authority. We rely on selected results of a focus-group study conducted in six cities of the Moscow region within the framework of the project of the Institute of Education of Higher School of Economics Universal Competences and New Literacy. Focus groups were held in May 2018. The introduction of new school standards resulted in the increased workload of teachers, who were burdened with extra bureaucratic responsibilities. The research showed that the professional community was discontented with the implications of diminished discretion and with the fall of authority. There was no much freedom of choice regarding learning programmes, textbooks and working routine. The All-Russian population survey showed that only 39% of adults were ready to acknowledge the authority of school teachers. Schoolchildren challenged the authority of school teachers too. Even primary school children were aware of the various ways to acquire knowledge. They did not need teachers as a source of knowledge in the same way as pupils did a few years ago. Teachers could not derive their authority just from their position and knowledge. As teachers reported the most desirable type of authority was personal authority, based upon merit and respect.

RN19_03: Digitalization in the Field of Professional Work
Time: 21/Aug/2019: 4:00pm-5:30pm · Location: BS.3.28

Modernization of Professions and Specialties. Transformation from Offline to Online Ones: Russian Case in the World’s Tendency
Elena Shatrova

State Academic University for the Humanities / Institute of Sociology Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation

Today in the modern Russian society many kinds of different offline professions can be replaced by the online ones. This transformation takes a place by the performance of the technological and digital progress. Many new resources and opportunities are becoming available by the development of the internet and new electronic devices. In Russia people are able to do daily necessary things just with the help of a computer or even a smartphone connected with the net. So there is even no need to leave the house, especially it is a great benefit for the people with limited mobility because of different reasons: disabled people, people with little children, people living in a remote regions etc. So that’s why this digital breakthrough is of a great interest of sociologists. Moreover, the world of professions has also changed and the same categories of people are able now to work like all other people. Employees have bigger choice (working online) and employers can get a better worker even if he lives in another city or country. But the question is if it’s already the time when there is almost no need in offline workers, or there is just a tendency of transforming offline professions into online ones. We have conducted the study with interesting results using the content analysis method to find out if the online world of professions has overcome the offline one.

Официальный сайт конференции: https://www.europeansociology.org/conferences/esa-conference-2019-manchester-uk



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